Recommended Reading

The following reading list is a selection of the growing number of books, websites, and articles that document the history and legacy of residential schools. It is by no means complete and is a work in progress. The original list was compiled by the Legacy of Hope Foundation with additional resources added by the National Day of Healing and Reconciliation and Project of Heart.

[slider title=”Ages 4–8″]

  1. Campbell, Nicola I., with illustrations by Kim LeFave. Shin-chi’s Canoe. Toronto, ON: Groundwood/House of Anansi, 2008.
  2. Campbell, Nicola I., with illustrations by Kim LeFave. Shi-shi-etko. Toronto, ON: Groundwood/House of Anansi, 2005.
  3. Eyvindson, Peter. Kookum’s Red Shoes. Illustrated by Keiron Flamand. Winnipeg, MB: Pemmican Publications, 1999.
  4. Kusugak, Michael Arvaarluk. Arctic Stories. Illustrated by Vladyana Langer Krykorka. Toronto, ON: Annick Press Ltd., 1998.
  5. Bouchard, David, with illustrations by Nidhi Chanani. Beaver and Porcupine. Oakville, ON: Rubicon Publishing Ltd, 2011. (part of series: Turtle Island Voices)
  6. Cutting, Robert. That’s Awesome! Oakville, ON: Rubicon Publishing Ltd., 2011. (part of series: Turtle Island Voices)
  7. Cutting, Robert. Our Reserve. Oakville, ON: Rubicon Publishing Ltd., 2011. (part of series: Turtle Island Voices.)                                                                                                             To access the Turtle Island Voices series visit:
  8. Chanie’s Life Journey  – This Story Map chronicles the life of Chanie Wenjack, and engages us in the ongoing conversation about truth and reconciliation. 

[slider title=”Ages 9–12″]

  1. André, Julie-Ann, Willett, Mindy. We Feel Good Out Here. Markham, ON: Fifth House Ltd, 2008.
  2. Dupuis, Jenny Kay and Kathy Kacer. I Am Not A Number. Second Story Press, 2016
  3. Jordan-Fenton, Christy and Margaret Pokiak-Fenton. A Stranger at Home. Toronto, ON: Annick Press, 2011.
  4. Jordan-Fenton, Christy and Margaret Pokiak-Fenton. Fatty Legs. Toronto, ON: Annick Press, 2010.
  5. Jordan-Fenton and Margaret Pokiak-Fenton. When I Was Eight. Annick Press, ON 2013
  6. Loyie, Larry. As Long As The Rivers Flow, illustrations by Constance Brissenden. Toronto, ON: Groundwood Books, 2002.
  7. Mitchell, Brandon and Tara Audibert. Lost Innocence. The Healthy Aboriginal Network, BC 2013  (NOTE: has a companion Teacher’s Guide)
  8. Olsen, Sylvia, Rita Morris, and Ann Sam. No Time to Say Goodbye: Children’s Stories of Kuper Island Residential School. Winlow, BC: Sono Nis Press, 2001.
  9. Pokiak-Fenton, Margaret. Not My Girl. Annick Press, 2014
  10. Robertson, David. When We Were Alone. Portage and Main Press, MB. 2016
  11. Sterling, Shirley. My Name is Seepeetza. Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre, 1993.
  12. Van Camp, Richard. We Sang You Home. Orca Books, BC 2016
  13. Chanie’s Life Journey  – This Story Map chronicles the life of Chanie Wenjack, and engages us in the ongoing conversation about truth and reconciliation.

[slider title=”Ages 12–14″]

  1. David Neel, Suzanne Fournier, Ernie Crey . Stolen from Our Embrace: The Abduction of First Nations Children and the Restoration of Aboriginal Communities. Vancouver, BC: Douglas & Mcintyre, 1998.
  2. Fortune, Len. A is for assimilation The ABC’s of Canada’s Aboriginal People and Residential Schools. Southampton, ON: Ningwakwe Learning Press, 2011.
  3. Hill, Gord. 500 Years of Resistance Comic Book. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 2010.
  4. Klockars, Donna. Pulling For Stz’uminus: The Pearl Harris Story. Ladysmith, BC: Stz’uminus Education, 2010.
  5. Loyie, Larry, with illustrations by Constance Brissenden. Goodbye Buffalo Bay. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 2009.
  6. McLean, Lynne Sherry. Where Mary Went. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 2010.
  7. Robertson, David, 7 Generations: Ends/Begins, Portage & Main Pr., 2010.
  8. Robertson, David, 7 Generations: Scars, HighWater Press, 2010.
  9. Robertson, David, 7 Generations: The Pact, HighWater Press, 2011.
  10. Robertson, David, Sugar Falls: A Residential School Story, HighWater Press, 2012.
  11. Saracuse, Tara. Island Kids. Victoria, BC: Brindle & Glass, 2010.
  12. Seale, Doris (Santee/Cree), and Beverly Slapin, eds., A Broken Flute: The Native Experience in Books for Children, Rowman Altamira, 2007.
  13. Chanie’s Life Journey  – This Story Map chronicles the life of Chanie Wenjack, and engages us in the ongoing conversation about truth and reconciliation.


[slider title=”History”]

  1. Adams, Howard. Prisons of Grass. Saskatoon, SK: Fifth House Publishers, Revised Edition, 1989.
  2. Barman, Jean and Jan Hare. Good Intentions Gone Awry: Emma Crosby and the Methodist Mission on the Northwest Coast. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 2007.
  3. Berger, Thomas. Northern Frontier, Northern Homeland: the Report of the Mckenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry. Ottawa, ON: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1977.
  4. Cariboo Tribal Council. Impact of the Residential School. Williams Lake, BC, 1991.
  5. Chartrand, Larry N., Tricia E. Logan, and Judy D. Daniels. Métis History and Experience and Residential Schools in Canada/Histoire et expériences des Métis et les pensionnats au Canada. Ottawa, ON: Aboriginal Healing Foundation, 2006.
  6. Deiter, Constance. From Our Mothers’ Arms: The Intergenerational Impact of Residential Schools in Saskatchewan. Toronto, ON: United Church Publishing House, 1999.
  7. Dickason, Olive Patricia. Canada’s First Nations: A History of Founding Peoples From Earliest Times. Toronto, ON: McClelland and Stewart, 1992.
  8. Grant, Agnes. No End of Grief: Indian Residential Schools in Canada. Winnipeg, MB: Pemmican, 1996.
  9. Huel, Raymond J.A. Proclaiming the Gospel to the Indians and Métis. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta Press, 1996.
  10. Jaine, Linda. Residential Schools: The Stolen Years. Saskatoon, SK: University of Saskatchewan, University Extension Press, 1993.
  11. King, David. A Brief Report of the Federal Government of Canada’s Residential School System for Inuit/Brefcompte-rendu du Régime du pensionnats pour les Inuit du gouvernement fédéral du Canada. Ottawa, ON: Aboriginal Healing Foundation, 2006.
  12. Lascelles, Thomas A. Roman Catholic Indian Residential Schools in British Columbia. Order of OMI in BC, 1990.
  13. Métis Nation of Alberta. Métis Memories of Residential Schools: A Testament to the Strength of the Métis. Edmonton, AB: Métis Nation of Alberta, 2004.
  14. Miller, J.R. Shingwauk’s Vision: A History of Native Residential Schools. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 1996.
  15. Millions, Erin J., Ties Undone: A Gendered and Racial Analysis of the Impact of the 1885 Northwest Rebellion in the Saskatchewan District, Saskatoon, SK: University of Saskatchewan, 2004.
  16. Nuu-Chah-Nulth Tribal Council. Indian Residential Schools: The Nuu-chah-nulth Experience. Port Alberni, BC: Nuu-chahnulth Tribal Council, 1996.
  17. Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (RCAP). Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, Volume 1, Chapter 10: “Residential Schools”. Ottawa, ON: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1996.
  18. Sproule-Jones, Megan, Crusading for the Forgotten: Dr. Peter Bryce, Public Health, and Prairie Native Residential Schools*, Can Bull Med Hist., 1996: 13(2): 199-24.
  19. Titley, E. Brian. A Narrow Vision: Duncan Campbell Scott and the Administration of Indian Affairs in Canada. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 1986.
  20. Van Kirk, Sylvia. Many Tender Ties: Women In Fur-Trade Society, 1670–1870. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980.
  21. Wagamese, Richard. Indian Horse. Vancouver, BC: Douglas and McIntyre, 2012.
  22. Younging, Gregory, Jonathan Dewar, and Mike DeGagné, eds. Response, Responsibility, and Renewal: Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Journey/Réponse, responsabilité et renouveau. Cheminement du Canada vers la vérité et la réconciliation. Ottawa, ON: Aboriginal Healing Foundation, 2009.

[slider title=”Memoirs”]

  1. Ahenakew, Edward. Voices of the Plains Cree. Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart, 1973.
  2. Apakark Thrasher, Anthony. Skid Row Eskimo. Toronto, ON: Griffin House, 1976.
  3. Blondine-Perrin, Alice. My Heart Shook Like a Drum. Nepean, ON: Borealis Press, 2009.
  4. Brass, Eleanor. I Walk in Two Worlds. Calgary, AB: Glenbow Museum, 1987.
  5. Campbell, Maria. Halfbreed. Halifax, NS: Formac Publishing Company Limited, 1973.
  6. Canadien, Albert. From Lishamie. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 2010.
  7. Dandurand, Joseph A. Looking into the Eyes of My Forgotten Dreams. Wiarton, ON: Kegedonce Press, 1998.
  8. Ennamorato, Judith. Sing the Brave Song. New York, NY: Raven Press, 1999.
  9. Fontaine, Theodore. Broken Circle: The Dark Legacy of Indian Residential Schools: A Memoir. Victoria, BC: Heritage House, 2010.
  10. French, Alice. My Name is Masak. Winnipeg, MB: Peguis, 1976.
  11. Goodwill, Jean and Norma Sluman, eds. John Tootoosis. Winnipeg, MB: Pemmican, 1990.
  12. Remy-Sawyer, Therese. Living in Two Worlds. A Gwichi’n Woman Tells her True Story. Trafford Publishing, 2009.

[slider title=”Residential Schools”]

  1. Dyck, Noel. Differing Visions: Administering Indian Residential Schooling in Prince Albert, 1867–1967. Hubbards: Fernwood Publishing, 1997.
  2. Furniss, Elizabeth. Victims of Benevolence: The Dark Legacy of the Williams Lake Residential School. Vancouver, BC: Arsenal Pulp Press, 1995.
  3. Glavin, Terry and former students of St. Mary’s. Amongst God’s Own: The Enduring Legacy of St. Mary’s Mission. Mission, BC: Longhouse Publishing, 2002.
  4. Graham, Elizabeth. The Mush Hole: Life at Two Indian Residential Schools. Waterloo, ON: Heffle Publishing, 1997.
  5. Grant, Agnes. Finding My Talk: How Fourteen Canadian Native Women Reclaimed their Lives after Residential School. Markham, ON: Fifth House Books, 2004.
  6. Haig-Brown. Resistance and Renewal: Surviving the Indian Residential School. Vancouver, BC: Arsenal Pulp Press, 1988.
  7. Jack, Agnes. Behind Closed Doors: Stories from the Kamloops Indian Residential School. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 2006.
  8. Joe, Rita with Lynn Henry. Song of Rita Joe: Autobiography of a Mi’kmaq Poet. Charlottetown, PE: Ragweed Press, 1996.
  9. Johnston, Basil H. Indian School Days. Toronto, ON: Key Porter Books, 1988.
  10. Kennedy, Dan. Recollections of an Assiniboine Chief. Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart, 1972.
  11. Knockwood, Isabelle. Out of the Depths: The Experiences of Mi’kmaw Children at the Indian Residential School at Shubenacadie, N.S. Hubbards, NS: Roseway Publishing, 1994.
  12. Lawrence, Mary. My People, Myself. Halfmoon Bay, BC: Caitlin Press, 1996.
  13. Milloy, John S., A National Crime: The Canadian Government and the Residential School System (1879-1986), Winnipeg, MB: The University of Manitoba Press, 1999.
  14. Moran, Bridget. Stoney Creek Woman: The Story of Mary John. Vancouver, BC: Arsenal Pulp Press, 1997.
  15. Willis, Jane. Geniesh: An Indian Girlhood. Toronto, ON: New Press, 1973.

[slider title=”Legacy and Reconciliation”]

  1. Assembly of First Nations. Breaking the Silence: An Interpretive Study of Residential School Impact and Healing, as Illustrated by the Stories of First Nation Individuals. Ottawa, ON: Assembly of First Nations, 1994.
  2. Battiste, Marie and Jean Barman, eds. First Nations Education in Canada: The Circle Unfolds. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 1995.
  3. Burnaby, Barbara. Languages and Their Role in Educating Native Children. Toronto, ON: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education Press, 1980.
  4. Castellano, Marlene Brant, Linda Archibald, and Mike DeGagné, eds. From Truth to Reconciliation: Transforming the Legacy of residential schools/De la vérité à la réconciliation. Transformer l’héritagedes pensionnats. Ottawa, ON: Aboriginal Healing Foundation, 2008.
  5. Chrisjohn, Roland, Andrea Bear Nicholas, Karen Stote, James Craven (Omahkohkiaayo i’poyi), Tanya Wasacase, Pierre Loiselle, and Andrea O. Smith. An Historic Non-Apology, Completely and Utterly Not Accepted.
  6. Chrisjohn, Roland and Sherri Young. The Circle Game: Shadows and Substance in the Indian Residential School Experience. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 1997.
  7. Crey, Ernie and Suzanne Fournier. Stolen From Our Embrace: Abduction of First Nation Children and the Restoration of Aboriginal Communities. Toronto, ON: Douglas & McIntyre, 1997.
  8. McKegney, Sam, Magic Weapons: Aboriginal Writers Remaking Community after Residential School, Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba Press, 2007.
  9. Regan, Paulette. Unsettling the Settler Within: Indian Residential Schools, Truth Telling, and Reconciliation in Canada. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 2010.
  10. Schissel, Bernard and Terry Wotherspoon. The Legacy of School for Aboriginal People: Education, Oppression, and Emancipation. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press, 2003.
  11. Wadden, Marie. Where the Pavement Ends: Canada’s Aboriginal Recovery Movement and the Urgent Need for Reconciliation. Toronto, ON: Douglas & McIntyre, 2008.

[slider title=”Fiction”]

  1. Alexie, Robert Arthur. Porcupines and China Dolls. Don Mills, ON: Stoddart, 2009.
  2. Akiwenzie-Damm, Kateri and Josie Douglas, eds. Skins: Contemporary Indigenous Writing. Wiarton, ON:
    Kegedonce Press and Alice Springs: Jukurrpa Books, 2000.
  3. Armstong, Jeannette. Slash, Revised. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 2007.
  4. Blue Cloud, Peter. “Weaver Spider’s Web.” In All My Relations: An Anthology of Contemporary Canadian Native Fiction, ed. Thomas King. Toronto, ON: McClelland & Stewart, 1990.
  5. Boyden, Joseph. Born With a Tooth. Toronto, ON: Cormorant Books, 2009.
  6. Gedalof, Robin, ed. Paper Stays Put: A Collection of Inuit Writing. Edmonton, AB: Hurtig Publishers, 1980.
  7. Ipellie, Alootook. Arctic Dreams and Nightmares. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 1993.
  8. Maracle, Lee. Ravensong: A Novel. Vancouver, BC: Press Gang Publishers, 1993.
  9. Moses, Daniel David and Terry Goldie, eds. An Anthology of Canadian Native Literature in English. Toronto, ON: Oxford University Press, 1998.
  10. Mosionier, Beatrice Culleton. In Search of April Raintree. Winnipeg, MB: Pemmican, 1999.

[slider title=”Plays”]

  1. Highway, Tomson. Dry Lips Oughta Move To Kapuskasing. Saskatoon, SK: Fifth House Publishing, 1989.
  2. Kiss of the Fur Queen. Toronto, ON: Doubleday, 1998.
  3. The Rez Sisters. Saskatoon, SK: Fifth House Publishing, 1988.
  4. Lakevold, Dale and Darrell Racine. Misty Lake: A Play. Winnipeg, MB: Loon Books, 2006.
  5. Loring, Kevin. Where the Blood Mixes: A Play. Vancouver, BC: Talon Books, 2009.
  6. Loyie, Larry and Vera Manuel. Two Plays About Residential School. Vancouver, BC: Living Traditions, 1998.
  7. Moses, Daniel David. Brebeuf’s Ghost. Toronto, ON: Exile Editions, 2000.
  8. Simon, Lorne Joseph. Stones and Switches. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 1994.
  9. Taylor, Drew Hayden. Toronto at Dreamer’s Rock. Education is Our Right: Two One-Act Plays. Saskatoon, SK: Fifth House Publishers, 1990.

[slider title=”Poetry”]

  1. Armstrong, Jeannette and Lally Grauer, eds. Native Poetry in Canada: A Contemporary Anthology. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press, 2001.
  2. Dumont, Marilyn. A Really Good Brown Girl. London, ON : Brick Books, 1996.
  3. Dumont, Marilyn. That Tongued Belonging. Wiarton, ON: Kegedonce Press, 2007.
  4. Johnson, Emily Pauline. Flint and Feather. 1912. Reprint, Toronto, ON: Guardian Printing for Chiefswood National Historic Site, 1997.
  5. Joe, Rita. Poems of Rita Joe. Halifax, NS: Abanaki Press, 1978.
  6. Songs of Eskasoni. Charlottetown, PE: Ragweed Press, 1988.
  7. Redbird, Duke. Loveshine and Red Wine. Elliot Lake, ON: Woodland Studios Publishing, 1981.
  8. Ruffo, Armand Garnet. Opening in the Sky. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books, 1994.

[slider title=”International Experiences”]

  1. Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience 1875–1928. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1997.
  2. Bartels, Dennis A. and Alice L. Bartels. When the North Was Red: Aboriginal Education in Soviet Siberia. Montreal, QC: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1995.
  3. Child, Brenda J. Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families 1900–1940. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2000.
  4. Ellis, Clyde. To Change Them Forever: Indian Education at the Rainy Mountain Boarding School, 1893–1920. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma, 1996.
  5. Lomawaima, K. Tsianina. They Called it Prairie Light: The Story of the Chilocco Indian School. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.